Following is a more literary form of the business proposal that I have presented to various chamber of commerce in the Los Angeles area. It is interesting to note that unlike academic theory or bureaucratic laced government-run institutions, that which works in the real world works virtually ignoring criticism or conjecture. Yes, Mr. Forbes, capitalism may not only save us but education as well. Here’s to the innovative, problem solving, get ‘er done spirit of the entrepreneur. Peace!Over the past 17 years, the percentage of four-year college and university students who graduate has dipped more than 10 percentage points, despite increases in enrollment, according to the Council for Aid to Education and the National Governors Association. About 42 percent of students entering four-year colleges or universities graduate (Al Branch, CBS Business Network).But there’s more. And it gets worse.Every 26 seconds another student drops out of public high school which translates to nearly one-third of all public high school students dropping out. It’s so bad that Colon Powell and his wife are heading a national movement in an attempt to reverse the trend. But even of those two-thirds who graduate, the picture doesn’t get any brighter. According to a 2007 survey, nearly 90% desired to attend and graduate college. Unfortunately, the majority never did. Even of the current 28% of the population with bachelor’s degrees, within five to ten years 70% will no longer be working in a job related to their major.So what’s happening? Are our children, our future not getting the help, education, achievement they need or have been promised?But the plot thickens. Even though learning appears to be happening, there is a disconnect somewhere in the system: “A sizable [number of remedial students entering college] are recent graduates who performed well in high school: A 2008 study by the nonprofit Strong American School found that nearly four out of five remedial students had a high school GPA of 3.0 or higher.”So why aren’t they learning? Or is there such a large discrepancy between high school and college education that the issue is closing the gap (we have some of the best colleges and universities in the world yet some of the worst performing schools)? Or is it grade inflation or students being pushed through the system just so high schools, even community colleges, can obtain funding? Regarding grades, in college there is a similar problem to that which is occurring at the high school level. More and more is being written about students not learning, even those achieving good grades (As and Bs). So what’s going on?What is happening is complex but there are several major factors that stand out and must be taken into consideration; in doing so, we will take a look at not only the dropouts and failures but the alleged successes. And what we will discover is that we are looking in all the wrong places and asking all the wrong questions (or no questions at all) to ensure an increased chance at success. But first, let’s look at a few more facts to add to our understanding of the overall issue.Let’s take a look at high school kids first. Why are so many dropping out? According to a report titled The Silent Epidemic by John Bridgeland (CEO of Civic Enterprise, a publicity group that lead a 2008 national dropout summit), 80% of students surveyed said they dropped out because of a need for “classes that are more interesting and provide opportunities for real-world leaning.” Unfortunately, far too often children are taught out of context with little connection made between what’s being learned in school to that of the real world. Achievers know that without specific understanding of outcomes, what they are or why they even exist, lack of motivation and focus arises negatively affecting achievement.But there’s more to the drop out picture. More and more households are being run by a single parent-because of divorce sometimes paying for two households-who needs help from their wage-earning children just to pay the bills. Then there’s the minimum wage issue that places wages too high for some companies (especially small business that are in the majority) who can’t afford it, so they cut jobs. This has been part of the reason students drop out of high school; they can’t find a part-time job because there are fewer of them, so they get a full-time job to help mom or dad pay the bills.But let’s get to the deeper issue or, as I stated previously, the not asking of critical questions.How can schools really know what the issues are at hand when they are not asking students, their customers, what they want? As previously stated, today’s high school students have complaints (uninteresting classes, not applicable to real-world), and they may even be understood by teachers and administration, but little is being done to serve them. I know that some may feel that “adults know best” and teenagers are not mature enough to know what they need, but most adults will confess, if they think about it, this is hardly the case. And students know that today a college degree does not guarantee a job or career success. It may improve one’s chances but there are no guarantees.So what are some of the core issues?One is that schools are third-party government run institutions that don’t cater to the needs of the individual like customers or consumers in the real-world economy or the private sector. How many surveys are sent out to high school- or college grads to see if what they are receiving or have received is what they need? Often it is the opinions of a limited few on boards and accrediting agencies– at the college level–that are informing the many what they need. Because of this, schools and colleges are out of touch with what is really needed. Education (schools and colleges) is missing so much real-world knowledge, skills, and attitudes, which I estimate to be about 80%. Consider that in today’s job market those just entering the workforce will have upwards of three to four career changes over their working lifetime; what should be taught is not just knowledge but critical skills and attitudes on how to think and self-teach, for once college is over-after a brief sixteen years of education-then what? Go back to school every five to seven years or so for another degree? But instead we dictate to our students what we think they will need whether they need it or not. And it’s not just about careers, but to be more active and engaged parents, citizens, to live a longer, more productive life; life-long learning and new-skill building should be taught, along with a good understanding of success principles, relationship skills, capitalism, democracy, and government, and much more.Regarding current curriculum, how many students who have to learn algebra, geometry, trigonometry, biology, chemistry, literature, language, and history don’t care for much if not most of these subjects? I’ve taken many an informal survey with few respondents ‘passionately’ interested in any of the aforementioned. And it’s not partial or mild interest that creates substantial, empowered, life-long achievement. Certainly we know of the great crush for those with math and science skills. But what does that actually mean? Of the entire workforce such jobs account only for about 15%. But another thing to consider is that we are putting the cart before the horse, or dictating, “You need to be good in math and science” rather than asking, “Are you interested in math and science.” For motivation is based in autonomy and the ability to choose, especially in considering one’s career choice, and not forcing a round peg into a square hole.Who is to say what it is that an individual needs when that individual is so unique regarding personality, disposition, influences social and familial, gifts and talents, and desires. But very few students are even asked what they would like out of an education, or whether or not what they are learning is “real world” suited to them, or if they’ve chosen a major merely based on what their parents, peers, teachers, society wants, or if they are doing it to assuage their desire for respect, money, prestige, and so forth. I can’t count the number of conversations I’ve had with people who went to school for a particular degree only to discover later that it wasn’t for them. I tell my students that if they find they are really struggling with what they have been studying and hate every moment of it looking forward to post-test time like the purging of a disgusting meal, well, it is probably not for them. Another factor is that within five to ten years 70% of college grads no longer work in a field related to their major. There is just so little prep-work done by the student to honestly and thoroughly know herself well enough so that she is working more toward a sustainable career and not one that her teachers or the president of the U.S. wants but what she wants, for only passion for a career will sustain the worker through years or decades, not that which she is barely interested in never mind hates.But even if the student is pretty secure in knowing herself-who she is and what she wants-there is still the mis-guided notion that colleges offering a degree will give her what she needs in the real world. Hardly. Once again, I can’t count the number of times I have been told by those who obtained a bachelor’s degree, certificate, associate’s degree-some type of officially stamped and sealed piece of paper-that hardly prepared them or didn’t do so in the least. Students, after all, do little in the way of analyzing self and then matching what they’ve discovered to an education then a career.To top this off, consider that accrediting agencies approve quality of institutions of higher learning based on standards set by the accrediting agency in collaboration with the educational institution of higher learning in question. But just the number of issues regarding accrediting agencies alone could take up pages. Does this seem to be problematic to you? It should. Is any of what is being spoken to by the college or accrediting agency based in reality? What the student or consumer needs? Has a college grad ever received a survey asking how much of the education he or she has received is of great practical use? Applicable more than not to career and life? Is there anything that needs to be change? Modified? Altered? Improved?Rarely.Why? Because education is predominantly not about the student but funding. At the high school, community college, state college, even university level third-party interest in getting money far often takes priority over student education and what is being taught. Consider that the majority of high school students are learning things they won’t use or ever care about should give you some clue. And schools can get more and more money, but that doesn’t solve the problem either. For money has no intrinsic value, it is the people who use it who provide or lack the value. And sometimes it might be less money that will do the trick; why not instead put teachers on commission to ensure student success in the work place. In all likelihood, not only would student success improve so would teachers incomes as they push to get real-world results not what is merely believed to be needed. What is really needed is better management and innovation.Another issue is that schools focus on minimal intelligence types, two of the eight, actually: linguistics and logic or language and math. What if a student’s gift lies in the kinesthetic or body, or in the intra-personal or reflective, or inter-personal the social, on and on it goes. There is so much more to life than being an engineer or English lit professor.What would truly improve education is to disconnect it from the third-party government and leave it up to the supplier and consumer to work it out. Consider that greatest retention and graduation rates are formed in private high schools and the most learning goes on in private colleges and universities where the consumer votes with his or her dollar as to whether or not the institution stays open, should help you to begin to see a solution to this education problem.Just imagine if degrees were offered on a supply / demand basis without the slow, self-interested based bureaucracy of government. The consumer would receive the least expensive, most innovative, practical, connective education one could buy. Without a direct connection between supplier and consumer distortion and imbalances occur. As any good capitalist knows, only the trial and error process of innovation in the private sector sans any micromanagement with third-party interest can determine and sustain long-term growth and optimize effectiveness. Government managed entities ultimately serve only the whims of politicians or third-party individuals. However, the education issue will never be solved by the government in a timely fashion. Consider that welfare was enacted in the 1930s and reformed some sixty years later or that government-run airports are sixty years behind in plane-tracking technology. Because of its bureaucratic self-interest, it can only provide basic education at best, and even there it does so poorly. We have to prioritize the consumer, what he or she needs, question and listen to what is needed.Edward L Deci, author of Why We Do What We Do, tells us that people are motivated best if they act autonomously, or freely choose what it is they desire to do sans any parental, peer, social influences, or ego-based needs (to be a doctor to simply gain respect, prestige). This is the beginning of student success. And it will certainly take some time and experimenting even changing of careers, but over the long haul, it will decrease the waste of time and money spent on “education” that is not desired. And we must get rid of the waste. As Garrett B Gunderson states in Killing Sacred Cows, “The more risk we take on, the more we expose ourselves to lost opportunity costs, and these are so often so profound that they make all the difference between wealth and mediocrity.” This same loss can be seen in regards to education. Gunderson also mentions that in order to decrease risk financially one must invest in herself: “human life value-knowledge, skills, abilities, ideas, and relationships. Human life value is the source of all money, prosperity, and progress.” Yet people “know their Soul Purpose but refuse to acknowledge it because doing so may require uncomfortable decisions. The real pain and suffering from human existence come from not making these decisions.”To cut back on waste in time and money, confusion and mismanagement the individual consumer must put her education / career into her own hands. She can’t fix the system, nor should she desire to, but rather she should know as much as she can about herself, her talents, gifts and abilities, where she desires to apply them and what specific education and training she needs to get there sans any third-party that thinks it can dictate to individuals via a mass message what he or she needs.We have to turn our youth into proactive consumers. No longer is it practical to wait for education to be fixed. It can’t on a macro level. More than ever before it’s become critical for students to know themselves thoroughly, learn how to think critically, creatively, intuitively and to match what they learn specifically to a career and environment. And to invest in advancing themselves as accountable and responsible citizens not relying on educational or financial institutions, the government or corporations for career, financial, and retirement success.
While these 23 million individuals represent the very core of an emerging society that is more inclined to studying and learning, the remaining individuals are excluded from these learning experiences due to reasons of time, cost, or even personal issues.Over the last few years, the number of adults who are continuing with their education has increased tremendously. This term “continuing education” describes the opportunity and process of learning new skills and acquiring knowledge that is far superior to what we are taught during our formal schooling years.Most people opt for continued education to further their knowledge base and even their employability.Continuing Education vs. TraditionalUsually, what we learn in all of those long, arduous years of our formal schooling are just basic skills that are good enough to help us start working, but not good enough to take us further in our careers, especially with the rapid changes and advancements in technology that demands for a more sophisticated and educated workforce.Students who participate in continuing their education are generally working professionals who seek to further advance and promote their intellectual capabilities while still working. Since their time is divided between studies and full-time work, they have to be extremely motivated in order to succeed. One of the biggest characteristics that distinguish students who are participating in continuing education is their tendency to relate the lessons that they learn in class to their work experience.Instructors must have the proper and appropriate practical experience and knowledge in order to address the issues and concerns of these special students. Students involved in continuing education can be very selective when it comes to choosing their courses. The courses that they choose have to be in some way relevant to their work and should be able to benefit them. If the right course is chosen, it can benefit you a great deal both educationally and professionally.More and more adults are now engaged in continuing education that leads to formal qualifications that provide them with the adequate knowledge pertaining to a certain area of study. Furthermore, continuing education also provides us with a certain pride of accomplishment as we take our courses.Offering an affordable, faster, and definitely more focused means of acquiring career or personal objectives, continuing education credentials can be put on resumes and presented anywhere as evidence of the individual’s professional studies.The Importance of ‘Continuing Education’ in the WorkplaceA skilled workforce will always result in increased economic productivity. Here is how continuing education benefits the working force:o A more skilled workforce is always more productive – These days, skills and education are seen as the most important elements of the employability and income potential of a candidate. Since the economy has shifted to one that values an educated workforce more than an uneducated workforce, employers are now seeking both educated and skilled workers. The demand for continuing education has thus increased twofold.o Continuing education helps employers retain better employees while remaining as competitive as ever – A more educated employee will always be more productive, so companies have now started hiring employees who are continuing with their education. Continuing education can be seen as a way to retain the better, more educated employees.With the rapid advancement of the information technology sector, continuing education will not be confined to only physical space. Distance learning through interactive media will form a major part of continuing education. The internet will also play a huge role in delivering the course materials to the students.A virtual course that is aimed at extending an individual’s knowledge beyond those formal years of education has now become reality. With respect to all of this development in the field of continuing education, we have only one question to ask: how much further can continuing education go?
INTRODUCTIONAt the General Conference of UNESCO held in Paris on 19th November, 1964, it was agreed that “a publication is a periodical if it constituted one issue in a continuous series under the same title” (Norman, 2008). Supporting this notion, a periodical literature is published at regular intervals over an indefinite period, individual issues in the series being unnumbered. On this note, a periodical literature is a publication with a distinctive title which appears at stated or regular intervals without prior decision as to when the last issue shall appear. It contains articles, stories, or other writings by several contributors. Periodical literature is used in its narrower sense as indicating transactions and percentages of societies, daily newspapers magazines, scholarly journals, trade journals, review journals. Like most underdeveloped and developing countries in the world inadequate funding of higher education libraries in Sierra Leone reflects on poorly developed periodical literature collection and as a result ineffective information service is provided to the dissatisfaction of users. Based on the value for research work in the academia, managing periodical literature in higher education libraries in Sierra Leone should be the need for a collection of standard periodical literature in academic libraries is necessary.HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN SIERRA LEONESierra Leone operates a 6-3-3-4 system of education are subdivided into six(6) years at the primary level, three(3) years at the Junior Secondary level, three(3) at the Senior Secondary level, and a minimum of four(4) years at the tertiary level. This sub-division allows the implementation of curriculum that takes account of the different pupils more fully. The general aim of education policy in Sierra Leone is to provide every child with an education which takes fully into an account: character development: his interest ability and aptitude; his emotional, psychological and physical well-being; the manpower needs of the country; the equal importance of both academic and non-academic education; the need for a literature and numerate populace.; the economic resources of the state, so that his education can be of use to the country and at the same time provide opportunities for him to be successful in life.Higher education is post-secondary education given in a university, college or polytechnique and is the stage of specialisation. The objectives of higher education vary according to the institution and course of study but generally include the acquisition physical and intellectual skills necessary for the development of both the individual and his society. In Sierra Leone, higher educational institutions form the basis of educational advancement following the completion of secondary education. Higher education is the most effective means altering the outlook of people through the broadening of their horizon. Societal development to a large extent is dependent on the human resource empowerment and development. Against this background, higher educational institutions play a pivotal role in developing the human resource to contribute positively and meaningfully to the socio-economic, political and educational development of Sierra Leone.Higher educational institutions in Sierra Leone are the University of Sierra Leone, Ernest Bai Koroma University and Njala University which are state owned and University of Makeni and Limkonwong University which are private owned. The constituent colleges under the University of Sierra Leone include Fourah Bay College(FBC), Institute of Public Administration and Management(IPAM) and College of Medicine and Allied Health Science(COMAHS); Bo Campus and Njala University. The higher educational institutions of collegiate status include Milton Margai College of Education and Technology; Eastern Polytechnigue; Bonthe Polytechnique; Freetown Teacher. Port Loko Teachers College and these offer courses leading to the award of diplomas and Certificate. On the contrary, the state-owned and private -owned universities offer Certificates, Diploma, Undergraduate and postgraduate degree courses in various disciplines in the faculty of their respective institutions. The curricula differs from institution to institution and curricula and programmes that require the use of periodical literature include medicine, law, engineering, education, agriculture, arts and humanities, social sciences, pure and applied sciences, technology, management and administration. To a greater extent, the Central Government, through subventions funds for higher educational institutions to enhance their smooth-running, even though some donor agencies do render financial assistance to these institutions in addition to internal funds generated by them.HIGHER EDUCATION LIBRARIES IN SIERRA LEONELibraries are storage of information and information is such a valuable commodity that its immense contribution to national development cannot be underestimated. Higher education libraries are the nerve centres of all academic activities. This simply implies that these libraries contribute to the teaching/learning and research programmes of the parent institutions by providing the needed information services for undergraduate and postgraduate students, teaching staff, researchers, administrative and technical staff. Effective academic work is dependent on quality information service and the library plays a significant role in this regard. According to Frederick Ken Nicol information is an important source used by organisations to deliver appropriate product or services to customers(2011 p.64). In this vein, higher education libraries manage information to satisfactorily meet the need of their clientele. Thus, information needs to be planned for in the same way that human and financial resources are planned to ensure increased productivity and efficient service delivery. Therefore, academic libraries like all other organisations that have thought out and systematic information planning process stand out to benefit more those that do not. Well-planned and organised information enhances effective service delivery.Higher education libraries in Sierra Leone support research work, community development and complement the teaching/learning processes in their respective parent institutions. In this regard, good management of higher education libraries is the organisations and maintenance of a well-balanced and vibrant collection in ensuring that the information needs of users are satisfactorily met. The different collections stocked in these institutions include but not limited to general book collection on all disciplines to loan by users out of the library building, specialised collection, reference collection and periodical literature and the quantum of their contents depends on the size of the library and its readership. Developing and maintaining a well-stocked collection as well as recruiting and empowering competent and qualified staff is largely dependent on the financial strength of the library. Therefore academic libraries need to be prioritised by their parent bodies when it comes to annual budget approval and allocations for their effective operations.Managing academic libraries could be linked with the services they offer. Since the operations of academic libraries are gear towards the provision of effective services, this is only actualised by purchasing multiple copies of textbooks, recent journals and a good collection of recommended texts for background reading to develop and organise an academic library for effective academic work.PERIODICAL LITERATURE IN HIGHER EDUCATION LIBRARIES AND MANAGEMENTThe provision of higher education libraries is necessary in complementing the teaching/learning process and for effective research work. In this regard, premium should be put on the management of periodical literature in higher education libraries taking into account their significance in providing current and researchable information.Since periodical literature forms part of the collection of an academic library, a large percentage of its budget allocated should be utilised for the purchase of current and popular journals. The periodicals to be acquired should be titles recommended by faculty members in collaboration with the periodical Librarian across disciplines offered in the institution such as Library Quarterly; Journal of Sociology; Chemical, Abstracts; Soils Science Journal; International Journal of Management; Clinical Science Quarterly. It is important to note that organising and maintaining periodicals in higher education libraries differ from institution to institution.Initially, periodicals were published to enable philosophers and Scientist to communicate their new ideas and thought to others interested in the same or similar subjects. Today, periodicals are principal media for publishing original learned papers and the state-of-the-art reviews. They are increasingly important as they can be useful for both current and retrospective information needed by academics.Lawson(2014) opined that the significance attached to periodical literature necessitates the development of a strong periodical literature collection as part of the library stock. The writer of this article, however revealed that periodicals are of great significance in higher education libraries in that:
new topics new discoveries and technologies are usually introduced in articles in periodicals;
they supply generally the latest possible information on a given subjects;
they are often the purely source of materials on new subjects;
they supply a particular article to a reader who has seen it cited in a book or another journal; and
they provide an overview of the state of a given discipline at a particular time.
Also periodical article may remain invaluable information sources for a generation or indeed for a longer period. Periodical articles are usually fairly concise, often very reliable and frequently well-illustrated. A point to note is that periodical carry current information on most disciplines.Further significance of periodical literature in higher education libraries as asserted is that they are primary source of new information, whether it be the result of research, news items, statistical data, announcement, correspondence, advertisements about a products and services or whatever. Each type of periodical is important to at least a group of people in academia, relating to their work, or leisure activities; some have ephemera existence; others may be useful for many years, even indefinitely. Taking into the consideration the significance of periodical literature in higher education libraries, their selection and acquisition either by subscription, donation or exchange should be a collaborative effort between the libraries and staff of the various colleges and universities.Periodical literature in higher education libraries in Sierra Leone include journals, indexes, abstracts, magazines, serials and their organisations and management differs from library to library. Issues of all received periodical literature are recorded on a kardex and any missing issue should be claimed from the publisher. Before displaying and shelving them, all recorded issues are claimed with the ex libri stamp of the library in question. When all the issues to complete a volume are received, they are then put together to be sent to bindery or conservation unit for either hard cover binding or stitching. Users of periodical literature in these institutions include students, lecturers and researchers. Periodical literatures are to be used within the walls of the Periodical Department. However, users are allowed to take them out to photocopy the required pages after signing for them. Lecturers are given conception to loan them on short term basis and loan records are kept to recall overdue issues. The maintenance of periodical literature is as importance as the other collections of the library.CHALLENGESThe major challenge higher education libraries in Sierra Leone face is funding. These libraries are inadequately funded by their parent bodies to a point that the smooth-running of their operations in ensuring effective information service delivery is greatly hampered. For an academic library to develop and maintain a vibrant periodical literature collection depend on how well it is funded. Collection development in higher education libraries in Sierra Leone has faced challenges of fulfilling the demand of their clientele with an increasing scarcity of funds to cope with the high cost of periodical publications. As the result of the law budget allocated to run these libraries, subscribing to the required journal title poses a serious problem for the Acquisition Librarian. Some volumes are incomplete; missing issues are hard to replace and the purchase of kardexes on which received journal issues are recorded is not quite feasible since the library operates within a limited financial resources.In effectively operating higher education libraries, both the human and financial factors should be balanced as these two are inseparable in achieving the desired goal of an organisation. Against this background, colleges and universities in Sierra Leone with the support of the Ministry of Technical and higher Education should re-defined their respective libraries so that premium could be placed on the subscription of relevant journal titles as well as claiming missing issues from publishers and their agents.Another challenge higher education libraries in Sierra Leone faced in managing their periodical literature collection is that of storage space. Most of these libraries with the exception of Fourah Bay College(FBC) library which has a separate Periodical Department, do not have enough space for newly acquired titles. The storage problems these libraries faced leads to the frequent weeding of periodical literature to create space for subsequent issues.The cost involved in conserving and preserving periodical volumes and issues is another challenge in managing periodical literature in higher education libraries. Unbound, unstitched issues can be easily snatched away especially for those in heavy demand. Completing the problems are those of heavy use of limited copies. Opening hours of periodical literature collection and loan system; inadequate staff situation and capacity building for staff to effectively manage periodical literature collection which implies that recruited staff should be trained academically and professionally to enhance their competence and efficiency; misuse and abuse of periodicals in terms of theft mutilation of important articles thereby depriving other users and rough handling that causes damage which simply means insecurity; digitisation of periodical literature collection as a way of modernising it in this information Age whereby information is processed, preserved and retrieve electronically in ensuring speed and accuracy; unavailability of online copies and photocopiers taking into account the growing number of periodical literature.Any treatment of collection development in higher education libraries cannot afford to overlook the question of periodicals which can be seen as a challenge. As valued sources of recent and reliable information for researchers and academics, periodicals are of great significance. The role they play for the advancement of knowledge to combat illiteracy cannot be underestimated. Periodical literature remains vital sources of information for a generational period. Higher education librarians may not be able to judge the intrinsic value of periodicals but should know something about their value to the institution in question and pattern of use which are important criteria for judging their value.Periodical literature can be of great significance in higher education libraries in Sierra Leone and so their effective management should be of concern to the librarians and university authorities. In developing periodical literature collections in academic libraries ensure balanced collection of current journal titles in subject areas relevant to the curriculum, librarian-faculty collaboration is crucial. The adequacy of periodical literature collection depend on journal titles selected and acquired to be added to the existing stock to meet the needs of the curriculum of the institution and those of users. In view of these challenges, the authorities of higher education libraries in Sierra Leone should see the need to solicit adequate funds through lobbying the Government, NGOs, parastatals and philanthropists to render financial assistance for the effective cooperation of their libraries. Advocating by librarians for good budget allocation is quite in place and the step in the right direction.CONCLUSIONHigher education libraries in Sierra Leone need to build and maintained vibrant periodical literature collections but this is dependent on how adequately they are funded by their respective parent institutions. Therefore, there is a need for an increase in the budget allocation of these libraries so that they can achieve their desired goals. A point-worth noting is that the appointment of qualified and competent staff in running the periodical collection of these libraries should be taken into keen consideration as both the human and financial factors should be well balanced in enhancing effective service delivery. Capacity building of the recruited staff to a large extent is fundamental for efficient performance ensures their upward mobility which is seen as a motivational factor. Staff of the periodical literature collection should be security-conscious to avoid the misuse and abuse of periodicals. The use of periodical should be closely monitored by staff so that pages are not mutilated and heavily used issues are not taken away by users whereby others are deprived. Photocopying facilities should be provided within the library, so that needed pages are photocopied by users on request. The availability of adequate funds enhances the digitisation of periodical literature collection thereby ensuring the availability of online copies which makes the management of periodical literature in higher education libraries in Sierra Leone advantageous. The librarians of these institutions should endeavour to revisit the opening hours of their periodical literature collections as long hours could allow profitable use of the time of users.REFERENCESDonaldson, Frank H. (2010). Managing periodicals in academic libraries. New York: Prentice Hall.Findlay, Jane Rose (2011). How to develop and run a periodical collection in a college library? London: ELM Publications.Lawson, Eric J.(2014). What is a periodical and its significance for researchers? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Nicol, Frederick Ken(2011). How to acquire and manage periodical publications in research libraries? New York: Academic Press.Norman, Betty Ann(2008). The use of periodicals in college libraries. London: Clive Bingley.